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The Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition (SACN) previously considered the evidence on vitamin D and health in 2007. It concluded that there were insufficient data at that time to reconsider the Dietary Reference Values (DRVs) for vitamin D set by the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food and Nutrition Policy (COMA) in 1991. Since vitamin D is synthesised in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight, COMA considered that dietary intakes of vitamin D were not necessary for most of the UK population (aged 4-64y). It was assumed that skin synthesis of vitamin D in the summer would be enough to cover requirements during the winter. Reference Nutrient Intakes (RNI) were therefore set only for groups considered at risk of vitamin D deficiency.

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These notable cases support our original publication as well as work presented in India and subsequently published [1,2]. Resveratrol (RV) was discovered in the US in the 1940s, and later found to be an anti-hyperlipidemic medicinal component of grapes and red wine, also extracted from dried roots of the common weed Polygonum cuspidatum. In the modern era, RV has been characterized as a promiscuous, gene regulating, small molecular weight, polyphenol phytoalexin demonstrating broad-spectrum cell receptor and microRNA activity. It protects cells against mitochondrial DNA mutations, has “anti-aging” SIRTUIN activation /deactivation properties, modulates inflammation and most recently mitigated the earliest atherosclerotic marker (loss of flow-mediated dilatation) in a Japanese human clinical trial [3]. The second international conference on the biology of RV [4] and two major literature reviews have broad medical interest [5,6]. There are nearly 3500 papers in PubMed concerning some aspect of RV’s ability to inhibit carcinogenesis at all three stages of initiation, promotion, and progression.

Articles from Nutrients are provided here courtesy of Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)

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Macrophages consist of two main subsets: the proinflammatory M1 subset and the anti-inflammatory M2 one. 7-oxo-cholesterol, the most abundant cholesterol autoxidation product within atherosclerotic plaque, is able to skew the M1/M2 balance towards a proinflammatory profile. In the present study, we explored the ability of the polyphenolic compound resveratrol to counteract the 7-oxo-cholesterol-triggered proinflammatory signaling in macrophages. Resveratrol-pretreated human monocyte-derived M1 and M2 macrophages were challenged with 7-oxo-cholesterol and analyzed for phenotype and endocytic ability by flow cytometry, for metalloproteinase- (MMP-) 2 and MMP-9 by gelatin zymography, and for cytokine, chemokine, and growth factor secretome by a multiplex immunoassay. We also investigated the NF-κB signaling pathway. In the M1 subset, resveratrol prevented the downregulation of CD16 and the upregulation of MMP-2 in response to 7-oxo-cholesterol, whereas in M2 macrophages it prevented the upregulation of CD14, MMP-2, and MMP-9 and the downregulation of endocytosis. Resveratrol prevented the upregulation of several proinflammatory and proangiogenic molecules in both subsets. We identified modulation of NF-κB as a potential mechanism implicated in 7-oxo-cholesterol and resveratrol effects. Our results strengthen previous findings on the immunomodulatory ability of resveratrol and highlight its role as potential therapeutic or preventive compound, to counteract the proatherogenic oxysterol signaling within atherosclerotic plaque.

Articles from Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity are provided here courtesy of Hindawi Limited

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As an essential precursor for the synthesis of proteins and other molecules with enormous biological importance (including nitric oxide, urea, ornithine, proline, polyamines, glutamate, creatine, agmatine, and dimethylarginines), arginine displays remarkable metabolic and regulatory versatility. Evidence available to date provides a sound reason to classify arginine as an essential amino acid for young mammals (including parenterally fed human infants) and as a conditionally essential amino acid for adults under such conditions as trauma, burn injury, massive small-bowel resection, and renal failure. Arginine administration reverses endothelial dysfunction, enhances wound healing, prevents the early stages of tumorigenesis, and improves cardiovascular, reproductive, pulmonary, renal, digestive, and immune functions.

Arginine or its effective precursor citrulline may hold great promise as a nutritional or pharmacotherapeutic treatment for a wide array of human diseases. © 2002 Éditions scientifiques et médicales Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

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By Alexandra Thompson Health Reporter For Mailonline

A daily dose of vitamin D may ease the agonising pain of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), new research suggests.

The so-called 'sunshine supplement' can return sufferers' bowel habits to normal, which could even benefit their mental health, a US study review found. IBS has previously been linked to depression and anxiety.

Although the researchers did not speculate on how vitamin D lessens IBS, past research shows the nutrient is anti-inflammatory, which may ease discomfort in sufferers' bowels.

IBS affects between 10 and 15 per cent of people in the UK. It occurs when sufferers experience symptoms, such as abdominal pain and a change in bowel habits, but there is no clear cause behind them.

Up to 24 per cent of children and 20 per cent of adults in the UK are deficient in vitamin D.

Does Vitamin D Prevent Arthritis?
Vitamin D may prevent inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, research suggested in November 2017.

The so-called 'sunshine supplement' strengthens the immune system, which helps to prevent the body from attacking healthy cells and causing autoimmune conditions, like arthritis.

Rheumatoid arthritis, which causes joint swelling, may also benefit from vitamin D's anti-inflammatory effects.

Yet, as the painful joint condition reduces a sufferer's vitamin D sensitivity, patients may not benefit from taking such supplements once they have developed the disorder, or at least not at recommended doses, according to the researchers.

Study author Dr Louisa Jeffery from the University of Birmingham, said: 'Our research indicates that maintaining sufficient vitamin D may help to prevent the onset of inflammatory diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.

'However, for patients who already have rheumatoid arthritis, simply providing vitamin D might not be enough. Instead much higher doses may be needed'.

The researchers analysed blood and joint fluid from rheumatoid arthritis patients.

Vitamin D restores normal bowel habits
Researchers from the University of Sheffield analysed seven studies investigating a link between IBS and vitamin D.

One trial found a woman's bowel habits returned to near normal after a high dose of vitamin D, which eased her depression and anxiety.

Another investigation analysed 1,000 IBS patients and found 75 per cent had insufficient vitamin D levels.

Looking at 37 blogs of IBS sufferers revealed 70 per cent reported benefiting from taking vitamin D.

The findings were published in the European Journal of Clinical Nutrition.

Supplement may prevent type 1 diabetes
This comes after research published in October last year suggested vitamin D in childhood prevents type 1 diabetes.

The sunshine supplement lowers susceptible individuals' risk by strengthening their immune system, the study found.

Lead author Dr Jill Norris from the University of Colorado, said: 'For several years there has been controversy among scientists about whether vitamin D lowers the risk of developing type 1 diabetes.'

The researchers analyzed 8,676 children from the US and Europe with an elevated type 1 diabetes risk.

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